The most affected cells in our sample experience an f of 0.23; the average f among impacted cells is 0.004. Econ. Specifically, we show that we find very similar results using a wide range of alternative assumptions for the inference of SEs, the construction of the hurricane damage function, the calculation of mangrove width, and the model specification. Taken at face value, the difference between these coefficients indicates that the reduction in damage from mangroves roughly corresponds to 5.6 nightlight units. economic importance, except that some of the trees are occa-sionally used for timber, as in Sonneratia on Kusaie. Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. 15. S1 shows the tracks of the 44 tropical storms and hurricanes in our sample. Specifically, in terms of density, mangroves near the equator are characterized by dense aboveground biomass and by less pronounced seasonal variation in their density (29). Specifically, we use the annual composites produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (40). Mangrove ecosystems represent natural capital capable of producing a wide range of goods and services for coastal environments and communities and society as a whole. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Second, we sum the line segments to measure cumulative mangrove width on the shortest path to the coast. To measure the distribution of surface winds from hurricanes in Central America during our sample period, we use the wind field model developed in ref. The estimated coefficient of −5.96 indicates that, when a cell experiences, for example, category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2), nightlights decrease by ≈1.2 units (−5.96×0.2) or a 23% reduction. Mangrove forests are extremely productive ecosystems, providing critical services that benefit all of us. Specifically, while category 3 hurricane winds (f = 0.2) would lead to a 24% decrease in economic activity in cells with less than 1 km of mangrove width, cells with more than 1 km of mangrove width would experience no damage. Some of these outputs, such as timber, are freely exchanged in formal markets. We additionally show that our results hold among the sample of most affected countries and that they are not driven by confounding factors that are common within a state in any given year, such as government recovery efforts. Value is determined in these markets through exchange and quantified in terms of price. Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Valuation Methods As noted above, mangroves provide a wide range of vital ecosystem services, which have an equally wide range of value. We add to this literature by providing empirical estimates of how mangroves moderate the relationship between hurricane strength and local economic damages. * This storm surge-prone area is composed of 7,758 cells (3.6% of all cells). In each model, we discretize mangrove width into various bins that correspond to its q quantiles. By comparison, the impact of the hurricanes observed in the sample is fully mitigated in areas protected by mangrove belts of 1 km or more. This result implies a recovery to trend and is in line with previous literature, which has highlighted that the negative effect of hurricanes on economic activity is relatively short lived (20⇓⇓⇓⇓–25, 35⇓⇓–38). Economic importance of mangrove-associated fisheries. In these coastal lowlands, the estimates show that nightlights decrease by up to 24% in areas that are unprotected by mangroves. Recently, however, many planners and bureaucrats have tended to view mangroves as eyesores and 'waste-land'. People should pursue an adequate balance between natural and economic uses so mangrove forests can be maintained over time. Our preferred specification explores the impact of hurricanes in steps of 1-km mangrove width. performed research; A.d.V. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. The wider the swath of mangroves, the lower the impact from hurricanes, and less economic damage. We find that, in areas with less than 1 km of mangrove width, a category 3 hurricane can decrease nightlights by roughly 24%. Details of ecological and environmental values of mangroves can be discussed as follows. These satellites record daily cloud formation by measuring the amount of moonlight reflected by clouds at night. provided data; and A.d.V., M.E., O.A.I., and J.J.M. Mangroves have always been economically important to man and have provided us with food and all manner of products for thousands of years. Dots represent centroids of cells; lines show the shortest path to the coast. 44, which uses 1997 to 2000 Landsat data together with supervised and unsupervised digital image classification to construct a 30-m2-resolution map of the global distribution of mangrove. We also thank Kyle Emerick, Seema Jayachandran, Robert Mendelsohn, and the seminar participants at the Southern Economic Association 88th Annual Meetings and the 26th Ulvön Conference on Environmental Economics for many useful comments and suggestions. Other products that can be harvested from swamps include fuelwood, salt, animal fodder, dyes, tannins, etc. Despite increasing awareness regarding value and importance, the destruction of mangrove forest continues to take place in many parts of the world under a variety of economic as-well-as political motives. We repeat this procedure using q = 3 and q = 4. The earliest references to the uses of mangroves dates back to the year 1230. Source: USGS Global Distribution of Mangroves (2011), cited in UNEP (2014). 2A, model 4, we summarize these findings, estimating the impact of hurricanes on nightlights for 3 groups of mangrove width: 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 2 km or more. Mangrove forests have received considerable attention because their aerial root and canopy structure makes them capable of reducing wave action (8⇓⇓–11), wind velocity (12), and storm surge (13⇓⇓–16). â¢ Mangrove forest provides a sustained flow of marketable products and services. We use this map to identify areas that have historically supported mangrove habitats. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, DMSP OLS Nighttime Lights Time Series (Version 4, 2016). The second set of results shows that the impact of hurricanes in these storm surge-prone areas decreases as the width of mangrove increases. 4.2. For each of these cells, we additionally calculate the shortest path (Euclidean distance) from the centroid of the cell to the coast. With their dense network of roots and â¦ Fig. An example of the usefulness of ESEV is the economic valuation of mangrove forests in India, which has shown a significant rise in mangrove cover in the State of Gujarat post-1993 that is attributed to mangrove plantation or regeneration activities in the state (Sahu et al., 2015, FSI, 2011). Proportion of mangroves protected in the ten largest countries having mangroves. By fully exploiting the high spatial resolution of our measure of economic activity, potential hurricane destruction, and mangrove protection, we reduce the risk that our estimates of hurricane impact will be “aggregated out” (ref. Copyright © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Building on the literature that uses wind field models to estimate the damage of hurricanes (19⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓–26), we fill this gap by estimating how mangrove forests change the relationship between cyclone strength and damages. More than 1.4 billion people live in coastal areas at risk for tropical cyclones (1). Their leaves and branches can be used as fodder for cattle. Edited by Stephen Polasky, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, and approved November 14, 2019 (received for review July 7, 2019). We find that hurricanes lead to significant losses in economic activity in the short run and that wide mangrove belts are capable of mitigating these losses. The wind field model of ref use mangroves as habitats increase with income the period to... On natural regeneration and replanting to produce new generations of trees enter multiple addresses on separate lines or them! Applies to thickets and forests of such plants Social, economic and environmental values of mangroves dates back to coast! 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